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SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

A single ion discriminator ASIC prototype for particle therapy applications

A single ion discriminator ASIC prototype for particle therapy applications

F. Fausti, J. Olave, S. Giordanengo, O. Hammad Ali, G. Mazza, F. Rotondo,
R. Wheadon, A. Vignati, R. Cirio, V. Monaco, R. Sacchi

Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect A Accel Spectrometers, Volume 985, 1 January 2021, 164666
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164666

In the framework of the development of future advanced treatment modalities in charged particle therapy, the use of silicon sensors is an appealing alternative to gas ionization chambers commonly used for beam monitoring. A prototype of a device, based on Low-Gain Avalanche Diode (LGAD) sensors with 50 μm thickness, is being developed to discriminate and count single beam particles. This paper describes the design and characterization of ABACUS, an innovative multi-channel ASIC prototype for LGAD readout, based on a fast amplifier with self-reset capabilities. The design goals aim at detecting charge pulses in a wide range, from 4 fC to 150 fC, up to 70 MHz instantaneous rates, with a dead time of about 10 ns or less and efficiency larger than 98%. The characterization results indicate that even at the lowest input charge the signal-to-noise ratio is 15, high enough to keep full efficiency and preventing fake counts from the electronics noise. The dead time was found to be in the range between 5 ns and 10 ns, allowing to reach a full counting efficiency up to instantaneous rates of 70 MHz or larger, depending on the input charge.

Design and characterization of the FAST chip: a front-end for 4D tracking systems based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors aiming at 30 ps time resolution

Design and characterization of the FAST chip: a front-end for 4D tracking systems based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors aiming at 30 ps time resolution

E.J. Olave, F. Fausti, N. Cartiglia, R. Arcidiacono, H.F.-W. Sadrozinski
Oct 15, 2020Published in: Nucl.Instrum.Meth.A 985 (2021) 164615
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2020.164615

Detectors able to measure the time of flight with very high accuracy (10 ps) are becoming fundamental in the design of new High Energy Physics experiments, where accurate time measurements will be used to mitigate pileup effects. The development of such detectors has spurred intense R&D in both silicon sensors and the associated readout electronics, aiming at obtaining silicon-based detectors with a time resolution in the few tens-of picosecond range. This work presents FAST, a family of three different 20 channel amplfier-comparator chips, tailored to the readout of Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors toward a time resolution of about 30 ps. This paper reports the description of the FAST design architecture and summarizes the results on the initial characterization of one chip of the FAST family, in a stand-alone test structure and when coupled to a UFSD sensor.

Beam Monitors for Tomorrow: The Challenges of Electron and Photon FLASH RT

Beam Monitors for Tomorrow: The Challenges of Electron and Photon FLASH RT

Vignati, S. Giordanengo, F. Fausti, O. A. Martì Villarreal, F. Mas Milian, G. Mazza, R.Cirio, V. Monaco, and R. Sacchi
Front. Phys., 14 September 2020 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2020.00375

The emergent FLASH RadioTherapy (RT) uses ultrahigh dose-rate irradiation (up to 107 Gy/s instantaneous dose-rate in each μs pulse) to deliver a single high dose of irradiation in a very short time (<200 ms). Pre-clinical studies at ultrahigh dose-rates recently showed an increased ratio between tumoricidal effect and normal tissue toxicity (therapeutic index), compared to conventional RT at standard Gy/min dose-rates. If confirmed by biological in vivo validations, this could represent a breakthrough in cancer treatment. However, the reliability and the accuracy of experimental studies are nowadays limited by the lack of detectors able to measure online the beam fluence at FLASH dose-rates. This study aims at presenting the FLASH-RT dosimetry problem and analyzing the possibilities for a silicon sensor to be employed as sensing device for several FLASH scenarios, including some ideas on the readout part.

LGAD designs for Future Particle Trackers

LGAD designs for Future Particle Trackers

N.Cartiglia,R.Arcidiacono, G.Borghie M.Boscardin, M.Costa, Z.Galloway, F.Fausti, M.Ferrero, F.Ficorella, M.Mandurrino, S.Mazza, E.J.Olave, G.Paternoster, F.Siviero, H. F-W.Sadrozinski, V.Sola, A.Staiano, A.Seiden, Y.Zhao..

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 979, 1 November 2020, 164383

Several future high-energy physics facilities are currently being planned. The proposed projects include high energy ????+????− circular and linear colliders, hadron colliders, and muon colliders, while the Electron–Ion Collider (EIC) is expected to construct at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the future. Each proposal has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of readiness, cost, schedule, and physics reach, and each proposal requires the design and production of specific new detectors. This paper first presents the performances necessary for future silicon tracking systems at the various new facilities. Then it illustrates a few possibilities for the realization of such silicon trackers. The challenges posed by the future facilities require a new family of silicon detectors, where features such as impact ionization, radiation damage saturation, charge sharing, and analog read-out are exploited to meet these new demands.

Single Event Upset tests and failure rate estimation for a front-end ASIC adopted in high-flux-particle therapy applications

Single Event Upset tests and failure rate estimation for a front-end ASIC adopted in high-flux-particle therapy applications

Fausti F, Mazza G, Giordanengo S, O. H. Ali, Manganaro L., Monaco V., Sacchi R., Cirio R. Lavagno M, et al.
Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect A Accel Spectrometers, Detect Assoc Equip. Volume 918, 21 February 2019, Pages 54-59.
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.11.106

A 64 channels Application Specific Integrated Circuit, named TERA09, designed in a 0.35 μm technology for particle therapy applications, has been characterized for Single Event Upset probability… The intent of the test reported in this paper is to predict the TERA09 upset rate probability in a real application scenario…The radiation damage test took place at the SIRAD facility of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics in Padova, Italy... In the last part of the paper, we calculated the expected upset probability in a typical clinical environment, knowing the fluence of secondary, backward-emitted neutrons. Considering as an example a treatment room located at the CNAO particle therapy center in Pavia, the expected upset rate for TERA09 is ∼10² events/year. Using a redundant and independent monitor chamber, the upset probability expected during one detector readout is lower than 10⁻²⁴, as explained in the document.

Characterization of a multilayer ionization chamber prototype for fast veri!cation of relative depth ionization curves and spread-out-Bragg-peaks in light ion beam therapy

Characterization of a multilayer ionization chamber prototype for fast veri!cation of relative depth ionization curves and spread-out-Bragg-peaks in light ion beam therapy

A. Mirandola, G. Magro, S. Molinelli, S. Russo, E. Mastella, A. Vai, A. Mairani M. Lavagno, V. La Rosa, M. Ciocca

Med Phys. 45(5):2266-2277 Epub 2018, Apr 6.
DOI: 10.1002/mp.12866

QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy
(PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations. The charge collecting electrodes are made of aluminum, for a nominal water equivalent thickness (WET) of ~75 mm. The detector prototype was calibrated by acquiring the signals in the initial plateau region of a pristine BP and in terms of WET. Successively, it was characterized in terms of repeatability response, linearity, short-term stability and dose rate dependence. Beam-induced measurements of activation in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate were also performed. To increase the detector coarse native spatial resolution (~2.3 mm), several consecutive acquisitions with a set of certified 0.175-mm-thick PMMA sheets (Goodfellow, Cambridge Limited, UK), placed in front of the QUBE mylar entrance window, were performed. The ICs/SOBPs were achieved as the result of the sum of the set of measurements, made up of a one-by-one PMMA layer acquisition. The newly obtained detector spatial resolution allowed the experimental measurements to be properly comparable against the reference curves acquired in water with the PTW Peakfinder. Furthermore, QUBE detector was modeled in the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code following the technical design details and ICs/SOBPs were calculated.

Design and characterization of a 64 channels ASIC front-end electronics for high-flux particle beam detectors 

Design and characterization of a 64 channels ASIC front-end electronics for high-flux particle beam detectors 

Fausti F, Mazza G, Attili A, Giordanengo S, Lavagno M, et al.
Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect A Accel Spectrometers, Detect Assoc Equip. 2017;867.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2017.04.025

A new wide-input range 64-channels current-to-frequency converter ASIC has been developed and characterized for applications in beam monitoring of therapeuticparticle beams. This chip, named TERA09, has been designed to extend the input current range, compared to the previous versions of the chip, for dealing with high-flux pulsed beams. A particular care was devoted in achieving a good con- version linearity over a wide bipolar input current range. Using a charge quantum of 200fC, a linearity within 72% for an input current range between 3nA and 12 μA is obtained for individual channels, with a gainspread among the channels of about 3%. By connecting all the 64 channels of the chip to a common input, the current range can be increased 64 times preserving a linearity within 3% in the range between 20 μA and750 μA. 

SEGMENTED IONIZATION CHAMBERS FOR BEAM MONITORING IN HADRONTHERAPY

SEGMENTED IONIZATION CHAMBERS FOR BEAM MONITORING IN HADRONTHERAPY

R. Cirio, M. Donetti, F. Marchetto, G. Pittà, M. Lavagno, V. La Rosa

Modern Physics Letters A 30(17):1540026, May 2015
DOI: 10.1142/S021773231540026X

Segmented ionization chambers represent a good solution to monitor the position, the intensity and the shape of ion beams in hadrontherapy. Pixel and strip chambers have been developed for both passive scattering and active scanning dose delivery systems.
In particular, strip chambers are optimal for pencil beam scanning, allowing for spatial and time resolutions below 0.1 mm and 1 ms, respectively. The MATRIX pixel and the SAMBA strip detectors are described in this paper together with the results of several beam tests and the industrial developments based on these prototypes.

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